It wasn’t long ago that learning to sew lacerations in the emergency room was the most fun and useful a medical student ever felt.
In those days the choices were simple – to sew or not to sew, that was the question. Often it amounted to self-selection. The patient needed sutures or he wouldn’t be here.
Wound care these days is a little more interesting because we can pick the suture color, thickness or stretchability. We can even put a wound together without sewing.
For many wounds that aren’t too deep or in the wrong place, almost anything works. Just get the skin edges back together and hold them there, and healing will occur. Medical stitches, staples, suture tape or glue all work quite well. After a week or so, the patient is as good as new.Wound closure, like most of medicine, is conceptually simple: just put things back together the way they were. One of my surgical professors used to quip: “Anatomic closure doctor, put the insides back in the inside.”
Wounds in areas of greater skin tension or movement present some challenges. Cut the skin over a knuckle, and that repair will be pulled apart every time you make a fist. The chance of the wound staying closed with anything less robust than stitches is unlikely.
Put that same wound on the forearm, where the skin doesn’t move much, and there isn’t a lot of tension, suture tape or glue will work just fine.
Steri-strips are 1/8th inch fabric suture tapes that are used to close wounds. Nothing fancy; simply push the wound edges together and press on the tapes to hold it closed.
Dermabond or medical superglue is the latest innovation in wound closure. This is almost universally misunderstood outside the clinic or ER, which probably is a result of our normal use of superglue to fix nonliving things.
Take your basic broken toy, put a drop of superglue on the parts, hold them tightly together, and usually they stick. However, wounds are different. The biggest difference: they’re wet, and it is certainly tough to glue wet surfaces.
Medical superglue is never actually put in a wound. Rather, it is put on a wound (outside the wound). Pinch the skin edges together, make sure they are really dry, and put a drop of glue on top of the wound. This special superglue has some tiny threads in it that make it stronger, like fiberglass. Gluing it shut also seals it up, which means no bandage is needed.
So when it comes to skin lacerations, where they are is a big determinant of options. Other determinants are the age of the patient.
It is well known that almost any wound in a child can be taped or glued. Young children just don’t hold still when you point a needle at them (and why would they?). But sometimes adults react the same way, too.
The opposite can occur in working adults. They actually ask to be sutured. Medical superglue or suture tape needs to be treated gently. No heavy use of the hand. Sutures are a much stronger repair and often allow a worker almost full use of the hand immediately.
So now you know, there are choices. A good wound closure can be made using several different techniques. We can accommodate those with needle phobias, workaholics and everything in between.
Note: You may need to get professional treatment for a cut if any of the following are true.
- You can see bone, tendon, muscle, or fatty tissue
- The cut was made by a person or animal.
- The cut is on the face.
- There is extreme bleeding that does not stop after 10 minutes of pressure.